Cultural genocide:

Raphael Lemkin coined the term “cultural genocide” as a direct reaction to the crimes perpetrated by the Nazi Party and their collaborators during the Holocaust. These crimes included the desecration, destruction and theft of public buildings, monuments, cemeteries, businesses and other property owned by members of a targeted group. They might also take the form of book burnings, segregation, public humiliation, the prohibition of religious practices and other forms of violence against individuals, groups and the cultural or religious group they are/are perceived to be affiliated with. Learn more


Desk-Based Assessment (DBA):

Also known as historical research, is the term used to describe the search and evaluation of different sources about a site. Learn more 


Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS):

Highly accurate positioning system that uses Global Positioning System (GPS) to record the positions of specific features and/or create topographic models of landscapes. Learn more


Digital Terrain Model (DTM):

Also known as digital elevation modelling, is the process of creating a digital representation of ground topography and terrain. Learn more 



The term “genocide” is defined in the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide as “any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group”. Learn more 


Geographic Information System (GIS):

A software platform that is designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyse, manage, and present all types of geographical data. Learn more



A discipline concerned with the physical properties of the earth and its surrounding environment, and the application of methods for its analysis. Learn more 


Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR):

A geophysical surveying method that uses electromagnetic radio waves to acquire data about subsurface anomalies. Learn more



Are collective texts of Jewish laws derived from the Torah. Importantly, one aspect of the Halacha outlines specific stipulations regarding burial practices and the treatment of human remains after death.  Learn more


Killing sites:

Places of mass execution, where the bodies of those killed were buried, usually in mass graves. Learn more


Laser Scanning:

Also known as terrestrial Light Detecting and Radar (LiDAR) uses lasers to collect spatially accurate point cloud data. The types of data produced from this method include three-dimensional (3D) models of landscapes, structures and objects. Learn more


Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR):

Is a remote sensing method which uses lasers to collect spatially accurate point cloud data. LiDAR may be terrestrial (ground-based) or airborne. Learn more


Matzevah (singular), Matzevot (Plural):

A Hebrew term which describes a tombstone(s) or monument(s) which marks a Jewish grave (can also be spelt matzeva). Learn more



Is the science of making measurements between photographs. By taking overlapping photographs from alternative perspectives, 360° photorealistic panoramas or three-dimensional (3D) can be generated.  Learn more


Total Station:

Uses the emission and return of a single laser to measure and record distances between objects and, thus, the locations of points or features in relation to each other. The results of these surveys can be a series of points or plan drawings of features and landscapes. Learn more


Walkover Survey:

Are systematic examinations of sites to identify surface remains and landscape features. Learn more